Material handling plants

 

Danieli Procome has a wide range of experience in design and remodeling of material handling plants in iron and steel factories.

With a carefully designed equipment, Danieli Procome, provides a full and tailored solutions that offer high reliability with low maintenance. Automation of our processes, not only optimizes the resources, but also contributes achieving the high level of security in our facilities.

 

  • Slag-builders for steel

    In order to have a correct metallurgical process of steelwork, slag-builders must be added in a very precise and suitable way to obtain:

    ·The degree of cleanliness required in the steel.
    ·Optimal contain of gas.
    ·Reduction of thermal loses.




    The final features of steel and its effectiveness depend, in a great way, on its chemical composition.

    Special steels are produced by adding alloying elements to steel to form ferroalloy (an alloy of iron with at least one other element). The type and quantity of alloy elements will determinate mechanical, chemical and other properties of the final product. The desired outcome depends largely on precise dosage of these ferroalloys.

    Alloying elements and their effect in the properties of steel:

    Ferroalloys
    Chromium Improves hardenability, strength, and wear resistance, sharply increases corrosion resistance at high concentrations (>12%).
    Carbon Improves hardenability, strength and hardness and wear resistance but reduces ductility, weldability and toughness.
    Manganese Improves hardenability, ductility and wear resistance. Manganese eliminates formation of harmful iron sulfides, increasing strength at high temperatures.
    Silicon Improves strength, elasticity, aced resistance and promotes large grain sizes, which cause increasing magnetic permeability.
    Nickel Increases strength, impact strength and toughness, imparts corrosion resistance in combination with other elements.
    Vanadium Improves strength, toughness, abrasion resistance and hardness at elevated temperatures; inhibits grain.
    Boron Highly effective hardenability agent, improves deformability and machinability.
    Niobium Columbium Imparts fine grain size, improves strength and impact toughness; decreases hardenability.
    Sulfur Improves machinability when combined with manganese; lowers impact strength and ductility; impairs surface quality and weldability.
    Phosphorus Improves hardenability, strength, corrosion resistance and machinability; severely reduces ductility and toughness.
    Cobalt Improves strength and hardness at elevated temperatures, weldability and toughness.
    Cooper Improves resistance to atmospheric corrosion and strength with little loss in ductility; adversely affects hot working characteristics and surface quality.
    Titanium Improves strength and corrosion resistance, limits austenite grain size.
    Molybdenum Improves hardenability, wear resistance, toughness, elevated temperature strength, creep resistance and hardness; minimizes temper brittleness.
  • In addition to the standard feeding of the EAF, with scrap discharged into the bucket during the roof opening, the direct and continuous charging system of DRI/HBI through the EAF 5th hole provides a more profitable charging in terms of electrical consumption, charging time, power off time, metallic yield improvements and productivity.
    The HBI and DRI are conveyed from the external storage place to the EAF 5th hole by means of a system of belt conveyors, hoppers and bins.

    The following table compares the typical process (with bucket charging configuration) with the process of direct charging of HBI/DRI:


    PARAMETER STD FEEDING DIRECT CHARGING
    Tapped Steel (heat size) 70 ton 70 ton
    Bucket Charging mix 75% scrap - 25%HBI 75% scrap - 25%HBI
    Direct charged material - 25%
    EAF Volume 87 m3 87 m3
    Nr. of roof openings 3 2
    Bucket charging time 6 min 4 min
    Power off time Base -30%
    Electrical consumption Base Approx. - 20÷30 kWh/t
    Metallic yield improvements Base Approx. + 1÷2 %
    EAF productivity (lower TTT)
    Base Approx. + 9÷10 %


  • Downloading equipments

    DOWNLOADING EQUIPMENT


    The unloading hopper is designed to accept materials discharged by trucks and/or by front end loaders, big bags or hoist.
    The receiving hopper is composed of:
    • Wear lining plates made of Hardox 400 or equivalent wearing plate.
    • Metallic grate on hopper top to avoid loading unwanted dimensions.

    The hopper is supported by an underground concrete foundation or by a metallic supporting structure.
    Above the concrete walls, a support structure is extended until roof covering the unloading hopper. In addition, to reduce the dust emission, it’s installed a canopy with a connection to dedusting system.

    Conveying equipments

    NORMAL BELT CONVEYOR


    A normal belt conveyors is unidirectional. Depending on layout requirements the equipment can be placed in horizontal or inclined position.
    It is designed with one side walkway and a platform around the conveyor head for making easier the maintenance operations.

    REVERSIBLE BELT CONVEYOR


    A reversible belt conveyors is bidirectional. It is usually placed in horizontal position.

    SHUTTLE BELT CONVEYOR


    A shuttle belt conveyor is a bidirectional horizontal belt conveyor whose conveyor is movable (shuttle) on rails. Can be placed on top of the silo battery and will stop at the different throw-off positions.

    ELEVATING BELT CONVEYOR


    An elevating belt conveyors is used to raise materials to different levels when an inclined belt conveyor cannot be used. The belt is designed with pockets and flexible side walls. The equipment is driven by a motor.

    Storage facilities

    DAILY SILOS


    The daily storage silos are built as a battery unit. They are squared shaped and constructed by means of bolted steel plates. The structure that supports the silo battery is also a bolted steel one and includes platforms for belt conveyors and maintenance.
    The top silos is closed with plates and structure to avoid the dust emission and to maintenance of belt conveyors in this area. Above the top silos the main support structure is extended until roof covering the equipment on silos. The hopper of each silo is lined by anti-wear plates. Each silo is supplied with level control devices.





    MAIN EXTERNAL SILOS


    The main storage silos are built as standalone units erected on a concrete basement lined inside by anti-wear plates. The silos are round shaped, constructed by means of bolted steel plates and supplied with its own level control devices.
    Each silo is fitted with an internal labyrinth whose functions are:
    • Control the loading of the silo avoiding the breakage of the material to be loaded.
    • Allow a proper unloading flow of the material, avoiding some material to be stored for a long period of time.


    Extraction equipments

    DOSING BELT CONVEYORS


    Dedicated weighing and dosing belts extract the material inside each silo (Lime / Dolomite /DRI/HBI) at defined flow capacity.
    An adding box is fitted with each belt. This is connected to the cells and will combine their signals into a single output at 0-10 mV, which will go to another box on the hopper for conversion to 4-20 mA. This transmitter will be installed into an insulated and local box, and it will dispose of a Profibus card interface.

    These conveyors include one inverter to control the speed of the belt conveyor in order to get more material discharging accuracy.





    FIXED WEIGHING HOPPER


    Each weighing hopper is supported on three compression type load cells that are held firmly by supports with tie-bars that absorb lateral movements.
    An adding box will be fitted with each hopper. This will be connected to the cells and will combine their signals into a single output at 0-10 mV, which will go to another box on the hopper for conversion to 4-20 mA.
    This transmitter will be installed into an insulated and local box, and it will dispose of a Profibus card interface





    ELECTROMAGNETIC VIBRATING FEEDER


    The electro-magnetic feeder is the most suitable element for taking a wide variety of materials from the hopper and supply them in measured amounts. It allows the supply rate to be varied instantaneously with the feed running by means of a potentiometer built into the control panel fitted on all units. There are no bearings, pulleys, gears, etc. so maintenance is practically zero.





    ELECTROMECHANICAL VIBRATING FEEDER


    The vibrations are generated by two motor units attached on the frame of the vibrating feeder. These motor units have eccentric masses attached on their shaft, thus inducing vibration when they turn at high RPM. The amplitude of the vibration, hence the magnitude of the impulse force, is adjustable.






    Feeding equipments

    ROTATING CHANNEL


    the rotating channel is driven by a gear-motor.
    The rotating mechanism is designed with bearings to avoid frictions and the chute will be with rectangular section lined with plates 400HB hardness or circular section built with 400HB.





    VIBRATING AND ROTATING CHANNEL


    The rotating and vibrating channel is driven by moto-vibrators.
    The rotating mechanism is designed with bearings to avoid frictions and the chute will be with rectangular section lined with plates 400HB hardness or circular section built with 400HB.





    STORAGE HOPPERS


    The storage hopper controls the internal level of the material with a lever sensor device, which is usually placed on the roof of the hopper.





    DIVERTER


    The diverter has a flap in order to allow the flow of the material only in one way. This flap is driven by an electric motor or a pneumatic actuator.
    The structure of the diverter is made of steel and it is internally reinforced with anti-wearing plates 400HB hardness. These plates are bolted into the structure for an easier replacement.





    FIXED CHANNEL


    Where necessary, the raw material handling system can be equipped with emergency and connecting chutes. These feeding chutes are lined with anti-wearing plates 400HB hardness (bolted into the structure for an easier replacement) or stone boxes, where required.
    The chutes can be provided with labyrinth plates for high lengths, where required, in order to avoid the direct fall by gravity and to reduce the speed and the impact of the material.






    Dedusting system


    DEDUSTING SYSTEM


    The hoods arranged at each unloading point are connected to the dedusting system by means of a series of suction piping lines.
    This dedusting system is composed of manually operated partial flow valves for each unloading point; pneumatic on/off valves according to operating cycle requirements; balancing valves for each main line; and mechanical actuated on/off valves at each silo charging point. A suction pipings, place on supports, carry dust from the suction hoods to the plant takeover point. In addition, a suction equipment is also involved in the dedusting system. Its task is to send the dust to a dust collecting system by a booster fan to the main FTP or to a dedicated bag filter.


    Booster fan

    Booster fan

    This equipment is centrifugal type and driven by an electric motor (by means of a belt system). The booster fan is supported on a frame over silent block, to avoid any vibration. Its built is done with antiwear plates HB400.
    Dedicated bag filter

    Dedicated bag filter

    It’s like a small FTP, which is installed when a new equipment needs dust suction but the main FTP can’t assume it. Likewise, when the dust is generated for some materials as DRI, which can be potentially dangerous or explosive, is needed a dedicated installation to collect this dust.





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